Gaya Session 1922: A timeline for history enthusiast Gen Z
“I do not want that sort of Swaraj which will be for middle class alone. I want a Swaraj which will be for the masses,not for the classes. I don’t care for the bourgeoisie. How few are they? Swaraj must be for the masses and must be won for the masses”
As Gaya Session on Indian National Congress 1922 edges towards completing its century on 26th December, lets crystallize its events into a concrete timeline so that the youth or Gen Z read through this historical events with better understanding.
▪︎Gaya, one of the most sacred city for Hindu and Buddhist was chosen for 37th Annual Session of the Indian National Congress.
The venue selected was a site near village Tenui(about 3 miles south of Gaya)
▪︎Despite financial pinch and hand to mouth funds, pandalswhere erected, proper lodging and sanitary facilities were provided for the delegates and visitors.
तस्वीर में आप सीआर दास के साथ पंडित मोती लाल नेहरू, हकीम अजमल ख़ान और डॉक्टर मुख़्तार अहमद अंसारी को देख सकते हैं। बाद में ये तीनो लोग भी कांग्रेस के अध्यक्ष बने।
तस्वीर 1922 में सीआर दास की अध्यक्षता में बिहार के गया में हुए कांग्रेस के सालाना अधिवेशन की है। #Bihar #Congress pic.twitter.com/14uyR4tPis
— Lost Muslim Heritage of Bihar (@LMHOBOfficial) May 23, 2022
The President and the delegates:
▪︎Chittaranjan Das ,just released after 6 month of imprisonment, was the President of the Gaya Session of the Indian National Congress
▪︎20-25 thousands of delegates and political visitors arrived in Gaya via steam train, bullock cart and even on foot.
▪︎on 21st December, the President elect,his wife along with party delegates from Bengal arrived. followed by Hakim AjmalKhan,Pandit Motilal Nehru,shri J. M.Sen Gupta.
▪︎ Dr .Ansari(President elect of Khilafat Conference),Shri S. Srinivas Iyenger,Kasturba Gandhi,Shrj N .C. Kelkar and party arrived.
▪︎ Dakhan Tilakdan and Boda Singh arrived from Durban(South Africa )
▪︎political prisoners released from Hazaribagh jail on completion of their term also attended the Gaya Session of 1922.
▪︎Sarojini Naidu, Srimati Kasturba Gandhi were some of the prominent women who attended the session.
▪︎Among the Communists who attended the Gaya Congress were S.A Dange, Singaravelu Chettiar and Mani Lal Shah
Importance of 1922 Gaya Session of INC
▪︎The 37th Annual Session of Indian National Congress at Gaya was a crucial session where the Congress leaders discussed the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining its boycott of the government created directorates. Mahatma Gandhi insisted that the Congress should boycott the elections to the Legislative Counsils,while C.R.Das urged Congress to participate in the elections.
▪︎In the economic field, Das stressed the need of constructive work in villages. A champion of national education,he felt that the masses should be educated and be politically aware to participate in the nationalist movement
▪︎The session reconfirmed the Party’s opinion on that Civil Disobedience Movement is the only civilized strong political tool to overthrow the tyrannical government and attain national goals. It called upon Congress workers to pace up the Civil Disobedience Movement by enrolling 50,000 volunteers and collecting at least 25 Lakh rupees for Tilak Swarajya Fund.
▪︎ Resolution about Labour Organization was passed. This was proposed by Deep Narayan Singh of Bhagalpur ,with the view “to improve and promote well-being of Indian labour to secure them their just rights and prevent their exploitation as well as exploitation of Indian resources.
Pro-changers Vs No-changers and the end result.
The withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement led to friction of ideologies among prominent Congress leaders.
▪︎Motilal Nehru ,C.R.Das,N.C.Kelkar, Subhash Chandra Bose,Vithal bhai Patel,Ajmal Khan wanted changes in the Congress were called pro changers. They wanted to end the boycott of legislature and contest elections.
▪︎ C. Rajgopalachari,M.A. Ansari,Vallabhai Patel were called No-changers. They opposed any changes in the Congress. They advocated continuation of boycott and noncooperation.
▪︎ The Pro-changers were defeated by the No-changers by vote margin of 890:1740.
▪︎C R Das and Motilal Nehru resigned from the presidency and secretaryship respectively of the Congress
▪︎They announced the formation of Congress-Khilafat SwarajyaParty, with C R Das as the president and Motilal Nehru as one of the secretaries.