Jauna Shah II: a Subservient servant of Firoz Shah Tughlaq and seven Mosques of Delhi.

Jauna Shah II alisa Khan I Jahan II son of Khan i Jahan I Malik Maqbool Tilangani

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Malik Maqbool Tilangani then known as Gannama Nayaka or Yugandhar was a very capable commander in the court of Prataprudra, the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal. When Warangal fell in 1323 to the forces of then prince Jauna Sha alias Mohammad Bin Tughlaq. Malik Maqbool came into the service of Mohammad bin Tughlaq and accepted the Islam Muhammad bin Tughlaq named him Malik Maqbool. initially, he was appointed as the governor of Multan and sent to administer Punjab. After his return to Delhi, Subsequently, by making himself indispensable in the Delhi court, he became the finance minister and finally, the Wazir, of the Delhi Sultanate under Firuz Shah Tughlaq.

Jauna Shah II alisa Khan I Jahan II son of Khan i Jahan I Malik Maqbool Tilangani

When Khan I Jahan II Jauna Shah Tilangani was born his father Maqbool Tilangani was the Governor of Multan. Muhammad bin Tughlaq sent a letter to Maqbul Tilangani that this boy should be named after him. When he was born his father visited the famous Sufi Saint Bahauddin Zakaria Multani and he told him that this boy is fortunate and will be the pride and joy of the family. Though he didn’t become as militarily successful as his father but he gained enough renown and repute as his father. He became Khan I Jahan II after the demise of his father Khan I Jahan I Maqbul Tilangani and got six years of tenure as grand vizier or prime minister of Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

He used to call him Son and Jauna Shah II were so obedient to him; both share the same interest in Architecture. though he could not last long and succumbed to an unfortunate fate. During a conflict for succession with Muhammad Tughlaq son of Firoz Shah Tughlaq he was captured and killed near Mewat.

During his short span, he built several mosques in Delhi and A Tomb for his Father Maqbool Tilangani near the Shrine of Hazrat Nizamuddin Auliya.

Among them, seven mosques are very famous. If all are not completed but all these are commissioned by him. coincidentally or deliberately these mosques are in close proximity of all the shrines of famous Sufi Saints of Delhi.

Name of Mosque

1- Begampur Mosque
2- Khirki Masjid
3- Jami Masjid Feroz Shah Kotla
4- Kalan Masjid Turkman Gate
5- Kalan Masjid Nizamuddin Basti
6- Masjid Waqya or Chausath Khambha Masjid
7- Kalu Serai Mosque

1- Begampur mosque is situated near Vijay Mnadal at Begampur Village. it was built in 789 A.H. (1387 AD). The grandiose mosque is similar to the Kalaan Mosque or Khirki Mosque of Delhi the only difference is that Beghampur mosque has a single-storey building.

It has a huge Courtyard the mosque contains 64 domes, with one central one with a height of 9ft, and it measures 307ft by 295ft. It was in its time an important social center of the Jahanpanah, the sultanate capital of the Tughlaq dynasty.

Begampur Mosque, Source - asrfoundation.org
Begampur Mosque, Source – asrfoundation.org

2- Khirki masjid is situated at Khirki village close to the Satpula Bridge. the mosque has a unique architecture, the Mosque is in a square plan distributed into four square plans with four open courtyards The roof is partitioned into 25 squares of equal size with 9 small domes in each square (totaling 81 domes) and alternated by 12 flat roofs to cover the roof.

The four courtyards provide light and ventilation. The four corners of the mosque are adorned with towers with three protruding gateways, one in the middle of each face, with tapering turrets flanking each gate.

Khirki Masjid, Source - Delhi Archive
Khirki Masjid, Source – Delhi Archive

3- Kushk E Firoz Shah, The Citadel of Firoz Shah or Firoz Shah Kotla was situated on the riverfront of Yamuna at that time. the most notable building is the remains of the Congregational Mosque of the citadel. it was quite spectacular in its own time now much of it remains except the entrance, steps, and some part of its wall.

It is very famous that Amir Taimur offered a Juma Prayer and read a khutba here and he was so impressed by the design of the mosque, that he took some Masons and artisans along with him to Samarkand where he built a mosque in the same pattern.

Jami Masjid Feroz Shah Kotla
Jami Masjid Feroz Shah Kotla

4- The word Kalāñ means Big, Large, Great, or Grand. The Kalan Masjid or Kali Masjid (Black Mosque) was built in 1387. The mosque was the principal mosque of the city of Ferozabad, the city built by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.

It is an imposing structure in a plain style, with the main upper story approached via a flight of steps and crowned with a series of domes. it consists of a large courtyard. ThsThissque is badly encroached and severely altered.

Kalan Masjid Turkman Gate, Source - Delhi Archive
Kalan Masjid Turkman Gate, Source – Delhi Archive

5- Kalan Mosque, popularly called the Kali Mosque, is situated at the eastern periphery of Hazrat Nizamuddin and is surrounded by concrete Jungle. According to an inscription on the eastern gate of the mosque is attributed to Khan I Jahan Junan Shah and was built in 1370-1371/771 AH. This mosque has a resemblance with the Khirki Mosque and the Kalan Mosque. From the inside, it is divided into 4 open quadrangles like Khirki Mosque and its outer appearance is like Kalan Mosque Turkman Gate.

Mosque of Shaikh Abdu-n Nabi, A forgotten mosque from Akbar’s reign

The mosque is entered from three projecting domed gateways centered on its eastern, southern, and northern sides. Square in plan, the gates are further defined by tapering bastions (minars) at the corners that rise 1-2 meters above the level of the merlons decorating the top of the wall. The mosque walls are battered on the exterior and vertical on their courtyard elevations; some of the exterior walls are maintained plastered and painted white. Though the mosque has altered and repaired and lost much of its grandeur.

Khirki Masjid, Source - Delhi Archive
Khirki Masjid, Source – Delhi Archive

6- Chausath-Khamba Masjid (Mosque of 64 pillars) was built in the 1370s within the territory of Firozabad, now it is situated at Mirdard Marg near the Maulana Azad Medical College. However, this is a much smaller mosque as compared to the other 6 mosques of Tilangani. Its 64 pillars are made of White Sandstone and support a huge roof over its 64 pillars. The mosque is functional and rarely known to the outside world.

Kalu Serai Masjid, Delhi
Kalu Serai Masjid, Delhi

7- Kalu Serai Masjid is situated near Bijaymandal, the mosque exists only in name, The main building is now consumed by local dwellers while walking down the lanes, one can see the remains of arches, walls brackets, and domes.

The relics of the mosque whatever remains give an idea of how it would have looked in its heyday, one can easily assume it was built in the same architectural style as the other 6 mosques and was crowned by a series of low domes, It is ironic the mosque which survives for centuries couldn’t survive against post partition urbanization.

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